Coach’s corner: Right-size your training load for better performance

  1. Pablo Prieto-González1, Jaromir Sedlacek. Effects of Running-Specific Strength Training, Endurance Training, and Concurrent Training on Recreational Endurance Athletes’ Performance and Selected Anthropometric Parameters. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022 Sep; 19(17): 10773. Published online 2022 Aug 29. doi: 10.3390/ijerph191710773
  2.  Kris Beattie, et al. The Effect of Strength Training on Performance in Endurance Athletes. Sports Medicine. February 2014. 44(6):845-865. DOI:10.1007/s40279-014-0157-y
  3. Per Aagaard, J L Andersen. Effects of strength training on endurance capacity in top-level endurance athletes. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports. October 2010. 20 Suppl 2(s2):39-47. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2010.01197.x
  4. Iversen, V.M., Norum, M., Schoenfeld, B.J. et al. No Time to Lift? Designing Time-Efficient Training Programs for Strength and Hypertrophy: A Narrative Review. Sports Med 51, 2079–2095 (2021).
  5. Brad J. Schoenfeld, Jozo Grgic. Loading Recommendations for Muscle Strength, Hypertrophy, and Local Endurance: A Re-Examination of the Repetition Continuum. Sports (Basel). 2021 Feb; 9(2): 32. Published online 2021 Feb 22. doi: 10.3390/sports9020032
  6. Nicolas Berryman, Carl Binet, et al. Strength Training for Middle- and Long-Distance Performance: A Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance.

Ask the pros: Pushing the threshold

  1. Arturo Casado, Carl Foster, Marius Bakken, Leif Inge Tjelta. Does Lactate-Guided Threshold Interval Training within a High-Volume Low-Intensity Approach Represent the “Next Step” in the Evolution of Distance Running Training? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(5), 3782;
  2. A M Jones. A five year physiological case study of an Olympic runner. Br J Sports Med 1998;32:39–43
  3.  Asok Kumar Ghosh, Anaerobic Threshold: Its Concept And Role In Endurance Sport. Sports Science Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia

Race-day fuelling for triathletes

  1. Andrew Getzin, Cynthia Milner, Marie Harkins. Fueling the Triathlete: Evidence-Based Practical Advice for Athletes of All Levels. July 2017. Current Sports Medicine Reports 16(4):240-246. DOI:10.1249/JSR.0000000000000386.
  2. Kenneth Vitale, Andrew Getzin. Nutrition and Supplement Update for the Endurance Athlete: Review and Recommendations. Nutrients. 2019 Jun; 11(6): 1289. Published online 2019 Jun 7. doi: 10.3390/nu11061289.
  3. Bradley A Wall, Greig Watson, et al. Current hydration guidelines are erroneous: dehydration does not impair exercise performance in the heat. Br J Sports Med. 2015 Aug;49(16):1077-83. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092417. Epub 2013 Sep 20.
  4. Diego López de Lara, Jorge Gabriel Ruiz-Sánchez, et al. Exercise-Induced Hyponatremia: An Assessment of the International Hydration Recommendations Followed During the Gran Trail De Peñalara and Vitoria-Gasteiz Ironman Competitions. Front Nutr. 2021; 8: 781229. Published online 2022 Feb 21. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.781229.
  5. Wing Yin Lau, Haruyasu Kato, Kazunori Nosaka. Effect of oral rehydration solution versus spring water intake during exercise in the heat on muscle cramp susceptibility of young men. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2021; 18 (1) DOI: 10.1186/s12970-021-00414-8

3 ingredients to look for in a pre-workout supplement

  1. Adam M. Gonzalez, Jeremy R. Townsend, et al. Supplementation with Nitric Oxide Precursors for Strength Performance: A Review of the Current Literature. Nutrients. 2023 Feb; 15(3): 660. Published online 2023 Jan 28. doi: 10.3390/nu15030660
  2. J R Stout, J T Cramer, et al. Effects of beta-alanine supplementation on the onset of neuromuscular fatigue and ventilatory threshold in women. Amino Acids. 2007;32(3):381-6. doi:10.1007/s00726-006-0474-z. Epub 2006 Nov 30.
  3.  Simone Cappelletti, Piacentino Daria, et al. Caffeine: Cognitive and Physical Performance Enhancer or Psychoactive Drug? Curr Neuropharmacol. 2015 Jan; 13(1): 71–88. Published online 2015 Jan. doi: 10.2174/1570159X13666141210215655
  4. Bruno P. C. Smirmaul, Antonio Carlos de Moraes, et al. Effects of caffeine on neuromuscular fatigue and performance during high-intensity cycling exercise in moderate hypoxia. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2017; 117(1): 27–38. Published online 2016 Nov 18. doi:10.1007/s00421-016-3496-6.
  5. T D Noakes, A St Clair Gibson, E V Lambert. From catastrophe to complexity: a novel model of integrative central neural regulation of effort and fatigue during exercise in humans: summary and conclusions. Br J Sports Med. 2005; 39:120-124.

Expert Q&A: Put your strength to the test

  1. Jozo Grgic, Bruno Lazinica, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Zeljko Pedisic. Test–Retest Reliability of the One-Repetition Maximum (1RM) Strength Assessment: a Systematic Review. Sports Medicine – Open 6, Article number: 31 (2020)

  2. ACSM Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription Resource Manual, 1998.

The dynamics of stretching

  1. Effect of Acute Static Stretching on Force, Balance, Reaction Time, and Movement Time. David Bahm, et al. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. September 2004. 36(8):1397-402. doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000135788.23012.5F
  2. Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. Taichi Yamaguchi, Kojiro Ishii. J Strength Cond Res. 2005 Aug;19(3):677-83. Doi:10.1519/15044.1
  3. Piotr Zmijewski, Patrycja Lipinska, et al. Acute Effects of a Static Vs. a Dynamic Stretching Warm-up on Repeated-Sprint Performance in Female Handball Players. J Hum Kinet. 2020 Mar; 72: 161–172. Published online 2020 Mar 31. doi: 10.2478/hukin-2019-0043
  4. David G Behm, Anis Chaouachi. A review of the acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on performance. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011 Nov;111(11):2633-51. doi:10.1007/s00421-011-1879-2.  Epub 2011 Mar 4.

5 flu-fighting supplements

  1. Mariangela Rondanelli, Alessandra Miccono, et al. Self-Care for Common Colds: The Pivotal Role of Vitamin D, Vitamin C, Zinc, and Echinacea in Three Main Immune Interactive Clusters (Physical Barriers, Innate and Adaptive Immunity) Involved during an Episode of Common Colds—Practical Advice on Dosages and on the Time to Take These Nutrients/Botanicals in order to Prevent or Treat Common Colds. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018; 2018: 5813095. Published online 2018 Apr 29. doi:10.1155/2018/5813095
  2. [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. Common colds: Does vitamin C keep you healthy? [Updated 2020 Oct 8]. Available from:
  3. Min Xian Wang, Shwe Sin Win, Junxiong Pang. Zinc Supplementation Reduces Common Cold Duration among Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials with Micronutrients Supplementation. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jul; 103(1): 86–99. Published online 2020 Apr 27. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0718
  4. Goutham Rao, Kate Rowland. Zinc for the common cold—not if, but when. J Fam Pract. 2011 Nov; 60(11): 669–671.
  5. Abioye AI, Bromage S, Fawzi W. Effect of micronutrient supplements on influenza and other respiratory tract infections among adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Global Health 2021;6:e003176.
  6. David Mantle, Robert A. Heaton, Iain P. Hargreaves2. Coenzyme Q10 and Immune Function: An Overview. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 May; 10(5): 759. Published online 2021 May 11. doi: 10.3390/antiox10050759
  7. Sarah King, Julie Glanville, et al. Effectiveness of probiotics on the duration of illness in healthy children and adults who develop common acute respiratory infectious conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr. 2014 Jul 14; 112(1): 41–54. Published online 2014 Apr 29. doi: 10.1017/S0007114514000075
  8. Tracey J. Smith, Diane Rigassio-Radler, Robert Denmark, Timothy Haley, Riva Touger- Decker. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG® and Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis BB-12® on health-related quality of life in college students affected by upper respiratory infections. British Journal of Nutrition, 2012; 1 DOI: 10.1017/S0007114512004138

Manage insulin resistance for better health and fat loss

  1. By Lisa Raleigh, certified personal trainer, nutrition and life coach, entrepreneur and Biogen brand ambassador @lisaraleigh

Give your immune system a probiotic boost

  1. Carolina Maldonado Galdeano; Silvia Inés Cazorla; et al. Beneficial Effects of Probiotic Consumption on the Immune System. Ann Nutr Metab (2019) 74 (2): 115–124..

  2. Chiara Mazziotta, Mauro Tognon, et al. Probiotics Mechanism of Action on Immune Cells and Beneficial Effects on Human Health. Cells. 2023 Jan; 12(1): 184. Published online 2023 Jan 2. doi: 10.3390/cells12010184

Ask the pros: Perfect timing. Should I take my vitamins before or after meals?

  1. Hamid M. Said. Intestinal absorption of water-soluble vitamins in health and disease. Biochem J. 2011 Aug 1; 437(3): 357–372. doi: 10.1042/BJ20110326.
  2.  J. Clifford and A. Kozil. Fat-Soluble Vitamins: A, D, E, and K, Fact Sheet No. 9.315. Colorado State University Extension.
  3. National Cancer Institute (.gov)
  4. Natasha Khazai, Suzanne E. Judd, et al. Calcium and Vitamin D: Skeletal and Extraskeletal Health. Curr Rheumatol Rep. 2008 Apr; 10(2): 110–117. doi: 10.1007/s11926-008-0020-y.,%25%20%5B1%E2%80%A2%E2%80%A2%5D .
  5. S R Lynch, J D Cook. Interaction of vitamin C and iron. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1980;355:32-44. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1980.tb21325.x.,combat%20nutritional%20iron%20deficiency%20anemia .
  6. Bo Lönnerdal. Calcium and iron absorption–mechanisms and public health relevance. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2010 Oct;80(4-5):293-9. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000036.,at%20risk%20of%20Fe%20deficiency .
  7. L Hallberg, E Björn-Rasmussen, et al. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals. Scand J Haematol. 1978 Sep;21(3):215-24. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0609.1978.tb00356.x.
  8. Rita Wegmüller, Fabian Tay. Zinc absorption by young adults from supplemental zinc citrate is comparable with that from zinc gluconate and higher than from zinc oxide. J Nutr. 2014 Feb;144(2):132-6. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.181487. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

The restorative power of sleep

  1. Gill Phillipson, Sue Aspley, Ingo Fietze. Perceptions of the Importance of Sleep in Common Cold—Two Online Questionnaire-Based Surveys. SN Compr. Clin. Med. 2, 596–605 (2020). .
  2. Hui Liu, et al. Effects of sleep and sleep deprivation on blood cell count and hemostasis parameters in healthy humans. Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. July 2008. 28(1):46-9. DOI:10.1007/s11239-008-0240-z

Tone down those sugar cravings

  1. James M. Rippe1, Theodore J. Angelopoulos. Relationship between Added Sugars Consumption and Chronic Disease Risk Factors: Current Understanding. Nutrients. 2016 Nov; 8(11): 697. Published online 2016 Nov 4. doi: 10.3390/nu8110697
  2. Carlos Alberto Feldens. Et al. Added Sugar and Oral Health: A Position Paper of the Brazilian Academy of Dentistry. Front. Oral. Health, 06 April 2022. Sec. Oral Health Promotion. Volume 3 – 2022 |
  3. Jiantao Ma, Matthew Sloan, et al. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Abdominal Fat Partitioning in Healthy Adults. J Nutr. 2014 Aug; 144(8): 1283–1290. Published online 2014 Jun 18. doi: 10.3945/jn.113.188599.
  4. Pavankumar Patel, Nicola Abate. Body Fat Distribution and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients. 2013 Jun; 5(6): 2019–2027. Published online 2013 Jun 5. doi: 10.3390/nu5062019.
  5. Sanjay Basu,, Paula Yoffe, et al. The Relationship of Sugar to Population-Level Diabetes Prevalence: An Econometric Analysis of Repeated Cross-Sectional Data. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2): e57873. Published online 2013 Feb 27. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057873
  6. Kelly, R.K., Tong, T.Y.N., Watling, C.Z. et al. Associations between types and sources of dietary carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease risk: a prospective cohort study of UK Biobank participants. BMC Med 21, 34 (2023).
  7. Alicja Kucharska, Agnieszka Szmurło, Beata Sińska. Significance of diet in treated and untreated acne vulgaris. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2016 Apr; 33(2): 81–86. Published online 2016 May 16. doi: 10.5114/ada.2016.59146.
  8. Hilary Baldwin, Jerry Tan. Effects of Diet on Acne and Its Response to Treatment. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2021; 22(1): 55–65. Published online 2020 Aug 3. doi: 10.1007/s40257-020-00542-y.
  9. Parijat Kanetkar, Rekha Singhal, Madhusudan Kamat. Gymnema sylvestre: A Memoir. J Clin Biochem Nutr. 2007 Sep; 41(2): 77–81. Published online 2007 Aug 29. doi:10.3164/jcbn.2007010.